At the beginning of the foundation of the Tajik State Institute of Languages named after Sotim Ulugzod, the department of the Tajik language did not exist as an independent department. This department functioned first as part of the Department of the Russian Language, and then as part of the Department of General Linguistics (the heads of these departments were Abdullaeva Muyassara Abdulkhakimovna and Ponosyuk Aleksey Trofimovich). Only in May 1989, this department was established as an independent department and under the name of the Department of the Tajik Philology began to carry out its activities. The first head of the department was appointed assistant professor A. Samadov. As in those years the institute was mainly engaged in the training of teachers of the Russian language and literature for national schools, therefore, all efforts and means were directed to teaching the Russian language and teaching all subjects were carried out in Russian. The composition of students was multinational. Representatives of different nationalities studied at the institute in those years, including Tajiks, Uzbeks, Azerbaijanis, Armenians, Georgians, Tatars, Ossetins, Russians, Ukrainians and others. The department was entrusted with the task of teaching such subjects as the Tajik language, the Persian alphabet, and the history of the Tajik language. The specifics of the department in those years required such specialists who would be fluent in Russian and Tajik. Based on this, such capable and young cadres as M. Usmonov, H. Rakhmatulloev, D. Tursunzade, K. Asoev, S. Khayridinnov, K. Nazarov and others were invited to work at the department.
To improve the activities of the department, highly qualified teachers from other universities and scientific institutions of the republic, such as, V. Kapranov, doctor of philological sciences, L. Demichik, doctor of philological sciences,. D. Obidov, Doctor of Sciences, Z. Khasanov, Candidate of Sciences, H. Raufov, Candidate of Sciences, Khodjaev K., Associate Professor and others were invited. Considering the peculiarities of the institute's activities, the teachers of the department developed curricula and programs. By the decision of the scientific council of the institute at the department, Tajik language courses were organized for those who wish and lovers of the Tajik language. As part of these courses, not only teachers and employees of the institute were trained, but also employees of other state enterprises and institutions. Also, at the department there were scientific student circles, such as “Tarjumoni javon” (Young translator) and “Learning the Tajik language”. Some materials performed by members of these circles were published in official publications. Currently, the department has created and operates a circle "Zabonshinos" ("Linguist").
In September 2006, the Department of Tajik Philology was divided into two independent departments - the Department of Tajik Language and the Department of Tajik Literature. Professor Mahmadjonov O.O. was appointed the head of the Tajik language department. From 2008 to 2010, the department was headed by Doctor of Philology, Professor Shamsullo Ismoilov, and from 2010 to 2013, the head of the department was the candidate of philological sciences, associate professor S. Matrobiyon.
Since October 2014, the Department of Tajik Language and the Department of the Theory and History of Tajik Literature have been united into one department under the name of the Department of Tajik Language and Literature and in this form the department operated until the end of the 2014-2015 academic year. During this period, the department was headed by associate professor Hosiyat Olimi.
Since June 2015, the department was once again divided, one of which was called the Department of the Tajik language and the theory of linguistics. Professor Sh. Ismoilov was appointed as the head of the department, who performed this duty until September 2016. Since September 2016, the department was headed by the candidate of philological sciences, associate professor Dzhabarova Sh.S. At the beginning of the 2018 - 2019academic year, three departments were united into a single department called the Department of Theory and Practice of Linguistics - the Department of Tajik Language and Theory of Linguistics, the Department of Romano-Germanic Languages and the Department of Russian Language. The joint department was headed by the candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor Navrasov A.B.
At the beginning of the 2019-2020 academic year, the named department was again divided into three independent departments, one of which was called the Tajik language department and information management support. The leadership of this department was temporarily assigned to the candidate of philological sciences, associate professor Sh. S. Dzhaborova.
Since December 2019, the department is headed by the candidate of philological sciences Abrorov Saidumar.